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 Hills and downs

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PostSubject: Hills and downs   Tue Dec 11, 2007 2:33 pm


Downs & Moors


Barrow-downs

Downs east of the Old Forest in Eriador. They were known as the Barrow-downs because of the barrows, or burial mounds, that had been made there.

The first burial mounds on the Barrow-downs were said to have been built in the First Age by the forefathers of the Edain before they migrated to Beleriand. In the Third Age, the Dunedain, who revered the downs as a resting place of their ancestors, buried many of their lords and kings there. When the northern realm of Cardolan was defeated by
\theforces of Angmar in 1409, some of the Dunedain took refuge in the Barrow-downs and in the Old Forest beyond. Some of their slain, including the last prince of Cardolan, were buried in mounds on the downs.

When the Great Plague swept north in 1636, many of the people of Cardolan perished and the Barrow-downs were abandoned. The Witch-king then sent evil spirits from Angmar and Rhudaur to the Barrow-downs to enter the barrows. These evil spirits were known as Barrow-wights. The Barrow-downs became a place of fear and even Hobbits had heard of their sinister reputation.

The hills of the Barrow-downs were covered with short, springy grass. Many of the hills had mounds upon them and some had standing stones that stood out of the ground like jagged teeth.

Frodo Baggins and his companions entered the Barrow-downs on September 28, 3018, after leaving the house of Tom Bombadil. Tom advised the Hobbits to pass the barrows on the west side. They hoped to make it across the downs to the Great East Road by nightfall, but they fell asleep while resting on a hill and a fog rolled in that caused them to become disoriented.

Frodo became separated from his companions and was taken into a barrow by a Barrow-wight. His friends were lying cold and unconscious on the ground with a sword across their necks. Frodo was able to resist the temptation to put on the Ring and struck out at the Barrow-wight as it reached for his friends. Frodo called for Tom Bombadil, who came to their rescue. Tom sang a song to banish the Barrow-wight, and it fled with a shriek.

Tom gave the Hobbits swords of Westernesse from the barrow that had been used to fight the Witch-king long ago. He spread out the gold and treasures from the barrow on the grass so that the barrow's spell was broken and no Wight would return to it. For Goldberry, Tom took a brooch set with blue stones that had belonged to a fair lady who died long ago. He then escorted the Hobbits to the Great East Road on the edge of the Barrow-downs.

Names & Etymology:
Called Tyrn Gorthad in Sindarin. The exact translation of Tyrn Gorthad is uncertain. The word tyrn may mean "downs" or "hills." The word gorth may mean "one who is dead." The ending ad is used for "place." Thus gorthad might mean "tombs" and Tyrn Gorthad could be translated as "Hills of Tombs" or "Barrow Downs."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "In the House of Tom Bombadil," p. 145; "Fog on the Barrow-downs," passim
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320-21
Gateway to Sindarin by David Salo: p. 259, 393

Ettenmoors

Troll-infested region in Eriador. The Ettenmoors were on the western side of the Misty Mountains north of Rivendell. The River Hoarwell began in the Ettenmoors and flowed southwestward through the region. The Ettendales were valleys in the Ettenmoors that ran up into the foothills of the Misty Mountains. The Ettenmoors had rough terrain and were dangerous because of the Trolls that lived there.

When the North-kingdom of Arnor was founded in 3320 of the Second Age, the Ettenmoors were on the northern border of the region called Rhudaur. In 1300 of the Third Age, the Lord of the Nazgul established the realm of Angmar north of the Ettenmoors. After the Lord of the Nazgul was defeated at the Battle of Fornost in 1975, he rode off into the Ettenmoors and then vanished from the north.

In 2930, Arador, the Chieftain of the Dunedain, was captured and slain by Trolls in the Coldfells north of Rivendell. It is likely that the Coldfells were the same as - or possibly a part of - the Ettenmoors. Arador was the grandfather of Aragorn, King Elessar.

In October of 3018, Gandalf rode into the Ettenmoors after battling the Nazgul at Weathertop. He hoped to lead the Nazgul away from Frodo the Ring-bearer, and four of them pursued him for a while. Gandalf had to part with Shadowfax in the Ettenmoors because the ground was too rocky for a horse.

Names & Etymology:
The element etten is from the Old English eoten meaning "troll, ogre." A moor is a high, barren land, and dales are valleys. The Ettenmoors were also called the Troll-fells. The word fells is synonymous with moors. Coldfells was probably also another name for the Ettenmoors, though it may have been the name of an area in or near the Ettenmoors.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Flight to the Ford," p. 212, 215; "The Council of Elrond," p. 278; "The Ring Goes South," p. 287
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320; "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 338
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
"Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," p. 184
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "Flight to the Ford," p. 183, 188



Downs in the Westfarthing of the Shire. Originally the Far Downs formed the western border of the Shire. In the year 31 of the Fourth Age, Aragorn, King Elessar, extended the Shire westward from the Far Downs to the Tower Hills. This new area was called the Westmarch. One village on the Far Downs was Greenholm, home of Fastred who married Elanor Gamgee.

Note:
In the "Prologue" of the early Ballantine paperback edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, the Far Downs are called the Fox Downs. This appears to be a typographical error.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Concerning Hobbits," p. 14"
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 378

North Downs

Downs in Eriador. The North Downs were located about 100 miles north of Bree, at the end of the North-South Road. The town of Fornost was in the southern end of the North Downs.

Men lived in the North Downs long before the founding of the North-kingdom of Arnor and continued to do so afterwards. In 861 of the Third Age, Fornost became the capital of the North-kingdom.

King Araphor defended the North Downs and Fornost against an attack by the Witch-king of Angmar in 1409. During another attack by the Witch-king in 1974, Fornost was captured but King Arvedui held out on the North Downs for a time before being forced to retreat. The next year, the Witch-king was defeated at the Battle of Fornost, which was fought on the plain between the North Downs and Lake Evendim to the west. The North Downs and Fornost were deserted for a long time afterwards, but people came to live there again in the Fourth Age.

Sources:
Map of Middle-earth by Christopher Tolkien
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 257
The Return of the King: "Homeward Bound," p. 272-73
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 331
Unfinished Tales: "Aldarion and Erendis," p. 214 note 3

North Moors

Moors on the northern border of the Shire in the Northfarthing. The North Moors were the lower slopes of the Hills of Evendim. The Water may have sprung from the North Moors. The Hobbits of the Shire sometimes hunted in the area. The North Moors were usually the only part of the Shire where snow fell heavily.

Sam Gamgee's cousin Halfast Gamgee claimed to have seen a Tree-man walking on the North Moors. Whether this Tree-man was a wayward Ent or Entwife, a Giant, some other creature, or a figment of Hal's imagination is unknown.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Shadow of the Past," p. 53-54; "The Ring Goes South," p. 301
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "The Shadow of the Past," p. 77
Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad: Shire map, p. 70-71

South Downs

Downs in Eriador. The South Downs were located south of Bree and east of the Barrow-downs. The North-South Road ran through a narrow pass called Andrath between the Barrow-downs and the South Downs.

Source:
Map of Middle-earth by Christopher Tolkien
Unfinished Tales: "The Hunt for the Ring," p. 348

White Downs

Downs in the Westfarthing of the Shire. The White Downs were west of Hobbiton and east of the Far Downs. The Free Fair was held on the White Downs at Lithe, or Midsummer. Michel Delving, the chief township of the Shire, was on the White Downs. The soil of the White Downs was chalky as their name implies. When the roof of the Town Hole collapsed on Mayor Will Whitfoot he emerged covered in chalk and looking like a flour dumpling.

Code:
Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Concerning Hobbits," p. 15; "Prologue: Of the Ordering of the Shire," p. 19; "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony," p. 168
Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad: Map of the Shire, p. 70-71

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PostSubject: Re: Hills and downs   Tue Dec 11, 2007 2:43 pm







The Hill of Sight. Amon Hen was on the western bank of Nen Hithoel, near the southern end of the lake. Amon Lhaw, the Hill of Hearing, stood across the lake from Amon Hen. The hills were part of the range called the Emyn Muil. Amon Hen was a little more than 1,000 feet high.

At the foot of Amon Hen on the shore of Nen Hithoel there was a wide green lawn called Parth Galen. Water flowed down to the lawn from a spring on the hill.

There were woods on the slopes of Amon Hen. The lower slopes were gentle but became gradually steeper. A path led up the eastern side of Amon Hen with stairs in some of the steeper places. Partway up the hill was a small grassy place looking out over the lake. Rowan trees grew around the edge and there was a wide flat stone in the middle.

At the top of Amon Hen was the Seat of Seeing. This was a great chair upon four pillars that stood at the center of a circle paved with stones which was surrounded by a battlement. From the Seat of Seeing one might see far across the land. The Seat of Seeing and the Seat of Hearing on Amon Lhaw were built by the Men of Gondor, probably around the end of the Second Age.

The Fellowship came to Parth Galen at the foot of Amon Hen on February 25, 3019, and camped there. The next day on February 26, Frodo Baggins climbed the slopes of Amon Hen and stopped at the grassy place partway up the hill. He was surprised by Boromir, who tried to convince Frodo to give him the Ring. Frodo fled to the top of Amon Hen, where he sat on the Seat of Seeing and saw war brewing throughout Middle-earth and the Eye of Sauron seeking him. Frodo made the decision to set out for Mordor alone and returned down the slopes of Amon Hen.

A company of Uruk-hai from Isengard led by Ugluk came to Amon Hen that same day seeking the Ring-bearer. They were joined by Grishnakh and a company of Orcs from Mordor who had crossed the Anduin. They mistakenly seized Merry Brandybuck and Pippin Took. Boromir tried to come to their rescue, but he was slain near the foot of Amon Hen. Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli went after Merry and Pippin, while Frodo and Sam headed to Mordor, and thus the Fellowship was broken.

Names & Etymology:
Also called the Hill of Sight and the Hill of the Eye. The word amon means "hill" and the word hn means "eye."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Great River," p. 406, 410; "The Breaking of the Fellowship," passim
The Two Towers: "The Departure of Boromir," p. 15, 20; "The Black Gate Is Closed," p. 247, 252
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for AM2 and KHEN-D-E
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "The Breaking of the Fellowship," p. 350

Amon Lhaw


The Hill of Hearing. Amon Lhaw was located on the eastern shore of Nen Hithoel, a lake on the Anduin. Amon Hen, the Hill of Sight, stood on the western shore opposite Amon Lhaw. In the lake between the two hills was the island of Tol Brandir. Amon Lhaw was part of the range of hills called the Emyn Muil.

In the early days of Gondor, watch posts were maintained on Amon Lhaw and Amon Hen and high seats were built on the summits of the two hills. From the Seat of Seeing on Amon Hen, a person might see for a great distance. Although the Seat of Hearing is not described, it seems likely that from it a person could hear things from far away.

When Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee set out alone for Mordor on February 26, 3019, they rowed across Nen Hithoel and came ashore on the southern slopes of Amon Lhaw.

Names & Etymology:
Also called the Hill of Hearing. Amon Lhaw means "Hill of Hearing" from amon meaning "hill" and lhaw meaning "ears."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Great River," p. 410; "The Breaking of the Fellowship," p. 411, 417-18, 423
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for AM2 and LAS2

Beacon-hills of Gondor



System of signal-fires used for communicating between Gondor and Rohan. There were seven Beacon-hills between Minas Tirith and the border of Rohan, spanning a distance of about 150 miles. The Beacon-hills were: Amon Din, Eilenach, Nardol, Erelas, Min-Rimmon, Calenhad, and Halifirien. (See the map below.)

The system of seven Beacon-hills was established after Rohan was founded in 2510 as a means of communication between the allied realms of Rohan and Gondor. The Beacon-hill system could be used both ways: Gondor could signal Rohan, and Rohan could signal Gondor - though this was rarely done. Beacons of wood and fuel were maintained upon each hill by the Beacon-wardens.

During the War of the Ring, Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, decided to light the beacons, probably after learning of the fleet of Corsairs preparing to attack Minas Tirith from the south. On March 9, 3019, all seven of the Beacon-hills of Gondor were set ablaze.

Gandalf and Pippin Took saw the lighting of the Beacon-hills as they rode toward Minas Tirith. When the Rohirrim rode past the Beacon-hills on the way to Minas Tirith on March 10, the fires had been quenched.


Amon Dn:

The first of the seven Beacon-hills of Gondor. Amon Din was the closest of the Beacon-hills to Minas Tirith. It was located near the eastern end of the Druadan Forest. Amon Din was a rocky, barren hill that stood out from the trees. Birds and animals were rarely found on Amon Din and Men used it only as an outpost.

Amon Din was the first hill to have a beacon built on its summit. Its original purpose was to alert Minas Tirith to the approach of enemy forces. From Amon Din, sentries could keep watch over the crossing of the Anduin near Cair Andros and the passage into Ithilien from Dagorlad.

Names & Etymology:
Amon Dn means "Silent Hill" from amon meaning "hill" and dn meaning "silent." It may have been so named because it was isolated and uninhabited.


Eilenach:

The second of the seven Beacon-hills of Gondor. Eilenach was located in the middle of the Druadan Forest. There were pine trees around its base. Eilenach could be seen from a great distance. It was the highest point in the forest, and was the second tallest of the Beacon-hills after Halifirien. The summit of Eilenach was sharp and narrow, and there was not much room for a large beacon.

Eilenach was one of the three oldest Beacon-hills, along with Amon Din and Min-Rimmon. It was originally used mainly for communicating with the people of Anorien - a region of Gondor west of Minas Tirith.

King Theoden and the Riders of Rohan camped at the foot of Eilenach on the night of March 13-14 on their way to Minas Tirith.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eilenach is of unknown origin. It is not Sindarin, Numenorean, or Common Speech. The hill was probably named before the coming of the Numenoreans to Middle-earth.


Nardol:

The third of the seven Beacon-hills of Gondor. Nardol was located at the western edge of the Druadan Forest. It was at the end of a high ridge extending from the White Mountains. The ridge was once covered with trees but it had been stripped bare by the workers in the nearby quarries.

Nardol had an especially large beacon-fire. A guard was maintained on Nardol to protect both the beacon and the quarries, and a large store of fuel was kept ready.

On a clear night, Nardol's beacon could be seen from as far away as Halifirien, the seventh and last Beacon-hill, which stood in the Firien Wood on the border between Gondor and Rohan. Erelas, Min-rimmon, and Calenhad curved slightly southward and were not in the straight line of sight between Nardol and Halifirien.

Names & Etymology:
Nardol means "Fire-hilltop" or "Fiery head." The word nar means "fire." The word dol means "head" and is often used to mean "hill." Nardol was named for its large beacon.


Erelas:

The fourth of the Beacon-hills of Gondor. Erelas was a green hill without trees. It was located west of the Druadan Forest at the foot of the White Mountains, somewhat south of Nardol. Erelas was a small hill. Its beacon was not always necessary and was only lit in times of great urgency, like during the War of the Ring.

Names & Etymology:
The name Erelas is Sindarin in form but its meaning is unclear. Apparently the elements er meaning "single" and las meaning "leaf" are not part of this name. ("Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor," p. 19)


Min-Rimmon:

The fifth of the Beacon-hills of Gondor. Min-Rimmon was located at the foot of the White Mountains. It was one of the three oldest beacons along with Amon Din and Eilenach. Before the founding of Rohan, the beacon on Min-Rimmon was used to communicate with the people of Anorien - the province of Gondor west of Minas Tirith.

King Theoden and the Riders of Rohan camped at the foot of Min-Rimmon on the way to Minas Tirith on March 12, 3019.

Names & Etymology:

The name Min-Rimmon means "Peak of the Rimmon." The word min means "peak" in Sindarin from mini meaning "stick out." The word Rimmon is probably of pre-Numenorean origin. It either means "group of crags" or was the name of the group of crags of which Min-Rimmon was a part. (UT, p. 453)


Calenhad:

The sixth of the Beacon-hills of Gondor. Calenhad had a flat crown covered with green turf. It was a relatively small beacon, though it was taller than Erelas. Like Erelas, the beacon of Calenhad was lit only in times of great need, as in the War of the Ring.

Names & Etymology:

The name Calenhad means "green space" in reference to its flat, grassy top. The word calen means "green" and had is from sad meaning "place, spot."


Halifirien:

The seventh of the Beacon-hills of Gondor. Halifirien was located in the Firien Wood on the border between Gondor and Rohan. It was the tallest of the Beacon-hills and its summit rose high above the treetops.

Halifirien was located in the southeastern corner of the forest. Behind it was the deep cleft called the Firien-dale. The Mering Stream flowed past the western side of the hill.

The slopes of Halifirien were wooded nearly to the summit. The trees were especially dense on the lower slopes, particularly near the Mering Stream. The southern slope of Halifirien which rose out of the Firien-dale was sheer, but the other slopes were long and gradual.

A path marked by standing stones ran from the Great West Road to Halifirien. An ancient stone stairway ascended the hill to the top. The summit was surrounded by a belt of white birches. At the summit was a wide level circle where the beacon was located. There were temporary lodges for the Beacon-wardens near the summit.

At the beginning of the Third Age, after the death of Elendil in the War of the Last Alliance, Isildur brought his father's remains to the hill to be buried. He chose the location because it was then near the center of Gondor. Elendil's tomb was on the eastern side of the circle at the summit of the hill. It was marked by a black stone bearing the letters lambe, ando, lambe for Elendil's name. The tomb was covered with white flowers called alfirin or simbelmyne. The summit of the hill remained green and untouched even as the path to the hill became overgrown.

The hill became a sacred place and it was called Amon Anwar, the Hill of Awe. Its original name had been Eilenaer. No one was allowed to ascend to the top of the hill except the King of Gondor and any who accompanied him. It became customary for the King to bring his heir to the hill when he came of age to tell him of Elendil's tomb and of other important matters of the realm. This custom was later followed by the Stewards of Gondor.

In 2510, Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, brought Eorl the Young to the Hill of Awe. Eorl and his people had helped Gondor fight the Balchoth in the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. Cirion gave Eorl the province of Calenardhon, which became Rohan. In return, Eorl swore an Oath to help Gondor in time of need. Elendil's remains were removed from the hill and were interred in the Hallows of Minas Tirith.

The Mering Stream became the border between Rohan and Gondor. Technically, the hill was east of the border and was in Gondor. Initially, guard and maintenance of the hill was shared by both realms. However, over time the entire Firien Wood including the hill came to be considered the territory of Rohan.

The Rohirrim named the hill Halifirien, the Holy Mountain. They considered the hill to be a sacred place because it was where Eorl had taken his Oath and had been granted the land of Rohan.

When the system of Beacon-hills was established as a means of communicating between Gondor and Rohan, a great beacon was placed on Halifirien. This was the beacon that was visible to the people of Rohan.

After the War of the Ring, Aragorn, King Elessar of Gondor brought King Eomer of Rohan to Halifirien and they renewed the Gift of Cirion and the Oath of Eorl.

Names & Etymology:
The name Halifirien means "holy mountain" in the language of the Rohirrim. It is from the Anglo-Saxon hlig-firgen where hlig means "holy" and firgen means "mountain."

The Sindarin name was Amon Anwar, meaning "the Hill of Awe" from amon meaning "hill" and anwar meaning "awe." It was so named because the tomb of Elendil was on its summit.

Before the burial of Elendil, the hill was called Eilenaer. This was a pre-Numenorean name related to Eilenach. The meaning is not known.

Map of the Beacon-hills:

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PostSubject: Re: Hills and downs   Tue Dec 11, 2007 7:18 pm

Bree-hill

Hill in Bree-land. Bree-hill was a tall hill on the western edge of the Chetwood. The Great East Road curved around the southern side of the hill and the Greenway ran past the western side of the hill.

The village of Bree was on the western slopes of Bree-hill. A deep dike and a hedge formed a semi-circular fence enclosing the village against the hill. There were about 100 stone houses on the lower part of hillside where Men lived, while Hobbits lived farther up the slopes of the hill. The Prancing Pony was at the foot of Bree-hill, and the inn had two wings that cut into the slope of the hill.

The village of Staddle was on the gentle southeastern slope of Bree-hill. Combe was in a deep valley east of Bree-hill while Archet was in the eaves of the Chetwood. For a few miles around Bree-hill there were fields and tamed woodland.

Names & Etymology:
Also written as Bree Hill.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Fog on the Barrow-downs," p. 159-60; "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony," p. 161-62, 164; "Strider," p. 187; "A Knife in the Dark," p. 193
The Return of the King: "Homeward Bound," p. 268

Buck Hill

Hill in Buckland. Buck Hill was a low hill located on the east bank of the Brandywine River. A path led from the Bucklebury Ferry to Buck Hill. Brandy Hall, the ancestral home of the Brandybucks, was a many-tunnelled mansion dug into the slopes of the hill. It had three large front doors, several smaller doors, and hundreds of windows carved into the sides of the hill. The village of Bucklebury was in the banks and slopes behind Brandy Hall.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "A Conspiracy Unmasked," p. 108, 110




Hill in Lothlorien. The slopes of Cerin Amroth were grassy and covered with flowers - the golden elanor and the pale niphredil. On the summit of the hill were two circles of trees; the outer trees had white bark and the inner trees were the gold-leaved mallorn.

Cerin Amroth was the site of the house that King Amroth of Lothlorien built on a flet high in the branches of the trees. The flet on Cerin Amroth was originally the highest in Lothlorien and was used to keep watch on Dol Guldur across the Anduin.

At the time of the Fellowship's arrival in Lothlorien in January of 3019, King Amroth's house was gone but there was a white flet in a tall tree on the summit of Cerin Amroth. Frodo and Sam climbed up to the flet with Haldir. Frodo felt as if he had entered a timeless land, while Sam said, "I feel as if I was inside a song." (FotR, p. 365)

Aragorn called Cerin Amroth "the heart of Elvendom on earth." (FotR, p. 367) He stood at the foot of the hill recalling the Midsummer's Eve in 2980 when he and Arwen became betrothed on Cerin Amroth. After the Fellowship departed, Aragorn never went to Cerin Amroth again. After he died in the year 120 of the Fourth Age, Arwen went to Cerin Amroth to die.

Names & Etymology:
Cerin means "circular enclosure." King Amroth's name may have meant "upclimber, high climber" probably as a reference to the flet he built on Cerin Amroth.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Lothlorien," p. 353-55, 364-67
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn and of Amroth King of Lorien," p. 240-48
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," KOR entry

Dol Baran

Southernmost foothill of the Misty Mountains. Dol Baran had a rounded summit covered with heather and its lower slopes were green. It was on the western side of the Wizard's Vale where Isengard was located. After the parley with Saruman at Isengard on March 5, 3019, Theoden's company rode south to Dol Baran and set up camp for the night in a dell at its base.

Pippin was unable to sleep. He could not stop thinking about the palantir that he had picked up when Grima threw it from Orthanc. Pippin took the palantir from Gandalf while the Wizard slept and looked into it. The Hobbit was confronted by Sauron who demanded to know who he was. Moments later a Nazgul flew overhead. Gandalf took Pippin and rode with all speed toMinas Tirith while the rest of the company broke came and proceeded towards Helm's Deep.

Names & Etymology:
In Sindarin, dol means "head" often used to mean "hill." The word baran means "golden-brown" and the hill's name has been translated as "gold-brown hill." But other notes left by Tolkien indicate that in this case baran could be a lenited form of paran meaning "smooth, shaven" often applied to hills without trees.

Source:
The Two Towers: "The Palantir," p. 194-95 and passim
Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings: p. 416
Unfinished Tales: Index entry for Dol Baran
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for dol
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "The Palantir," p. 433

Emyn Arnen

Hills in Ithilien. The Emyn Arnen were located south of Osgiliath. The Anduin flowed in a wide curve around the western side of the hills. From the Emyn Arnen one could see across the Anduin to Minas Tirith.

In the 1600s, Hurin of Emyn Arnen was the Steward of King Minardil of Gondor, as well as his successors King Telemnar and King Tarondor. Hurin was a Man of Numenorean blood and all the Stewards of Gondor after him were his descendants.

Faramir, the Steward of Gondor after the War of the Ring, was made Prince of Ithilien and Lord of Emyn Arnen by Aragorn, King Elessar, in 3019. He made his home in Emyn Arnen with his wife Eowyn and their son Elboron. A white house was built for them there and the gardens, designed by Legolas, were renowned. Beregond became the Captain of Faramir's Guard, the White Company, and he went to dwell in Emyn Arnen as well.

Names & Etymology:
Emyn Arnen means "hills beside the waters," referring to their location on the Anduin. The word emyn is Sindarin for "hills." The word arnen is Quenya, composed of ar meaning "outside, beside" and nen meaning "waters." Arnen was an old name for a large part of Ithilien and the hills were later named "the hills of Arnen."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 22; "The Steward and the King," p. 247
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 333
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for AM2, AR2, and NEN
The History of Middle-earth, vol. IX, Sauron Defeated: "The Epilogue," p. 123
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil - The Stewards of Gondor," p. 220
"The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor," by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Carl F. Hostetter, commentary by Christopher Tolkien, in Vinyar Tengwar #42, July 2001, p. 17

Emyn Muil



Rugged hills along the Anduin. The Emyn Muil were located on both sides of the river around Nen Hithoel north of the Falls of Rauros. The landscape was bleak and the terrain was difficult and treacherous.

On the west side of the river, the Emyn Muil formed two long ridges that ran north to south. The western sides of the ridges were steep, while the eastern sides sloped more gently but were intercut with ravines and gullies. There was a deep, winding valley between the two ridges with a stream running through it. The ridge nearest the Anduin was the taller of the two. The other ridge descended about 20 fathoms to a wide shelf which ended in a sheer cliff that was the western edge of the Emyn Muil. This cliff was called the East Wall of Rohan because it formed part of the eastern border of that country.

On the east side of the river, the hills of the Emyn Muil extended farther and were more irregular. The terrain was like a labyrinth of twisted rock through which there was no straight passage. The southeastern face of the Emyn Muil was a high, sheer cliff overlooking the plains below. The cliff was lower at its northern end, but it was still about 18 fathoms (108 feet) high. At the foot of the cliff was a gulley that ran north to south. In this gulley was one of the many small rivers that flowed down from the Emyn Muil into the marshlands below.

Ancient landmarks of Gondor in the Emyn Muil included the Seat of Seeing on Amon Hen on the western shore of Nen Hithoel and the Seat of Hearing on Amon Lhaw on the eastern side. The North Stair was carved into the cliff beside the Falls of Rauros. The Argonath were erected at the northern end of the Emyn Muil on either side of the Anduin to mark the northern boundary of Gondor by Romendacil II probably around the year 1248.

In the years leading up to the War of the Ring, Orc raiding parties descended from the Emyn Muil into Rohan to steal horses. In 3002, Eomund, the father of Eomer and Eowyn, was killed by one such group of raiders when he pursued them into the Emyn Muil and was ambushed.

On February 26, 3019, a band of Uruk-hai captured the Hobbits Merry Brandybuck and Pippin Took and carried them through the western Emyn Muil toward Isengard. In the valley between the two ridges, an argument among the Orcs about what to do with the prisoners led to the deaths of five of the Northern Orcs. Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli found the bodies as they pursued the Hobbits and their captors through the Emyn Muil. The Three Hunters reached the East Wall at dawn on February 27 and descended onto the plains of Rohan.

Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee had a more difficult journey through the eastern Emyn Muil. They wandered through the twisted knot of hills for four days seeking a way down until February 29, when they came to the point where the cliff was lower. The Hobbits descended the cliff with the help of the Elven rope that Sam had obtained in Lothlorien. They then came to the river gulley but were unable to cross it.

That night they saw Gollum climbing down the cliff. Sam tried to seize the creature, but Gollum caught him in a strangle-hold. Frodo threatened Gollum with Sting, but in the end he took pity on Gollum and spared his life. After attempting to escape again, Gollum swore to serve Frodo as the Master of the One Ring. He led the Hobbits into the river gulley and out of the Emyn Muil.

Names & Etymology:
Emyn Muil is translated as "Drear Hills." The word emyn means "hills." The word muil means "twilight, shadow, vagueness."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Farewell to Lorien," p. 389-90; "The Great River," p. 396, 401, 405-6, 408; "The Breaking of the Fellowship," 418, 423
The Two Towers: "The Riders of Rohan," p. 23-26, 29, 30, 39; "The Uruk-hai," p. 47-52; "The White Rider," p. 98, 101, 104; "The King of the Golden Hall," p. 110; "Flotsam and Jetsam," p. 169; "The Taming of Smeagol," passim; "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit," p. 258; "The Window on the West," p. 277; "Shelob's Lair," p. 333
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 31; "The Black Gate Opens," p. 162; "Mount Doom," p. 221; "The Steward and the King," p. 248
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 326, 329; "The House of Eorl," p. 351
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 373
Unfinished Tales: Index entry for Emyn Muil (translated as "Drear Hills")
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for AM2 and MUY

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PostSubject: Re: Hills and downs   Tue Dec 11, 2007 7:19 pm

Green Hill Country (The Shire)



Hilly region in the Shire. The Green Hill Country stretched from Tuckborough in the Westfarthing across the north end of the Southfarthing and across much of the Eastfarthing. The Great Smials - the ancestral home of the Tooks - were dug into the hills around Tuckborough. The Stock Road skirted the northern edge of the Green Hill Country.

On September 23, 3018 - the first day of their journey - Frodo, Sam, and Pippin climbed up into the Green Hill Country. Frodo paused on a hill and looked back at the lights of Hobbiton, saying, "I wonder if I shall ever look down into that valley again." (FotR, p. 80) The Hobbits walked into the night through the hills and camped in a patch of fir trees, where they were seen by a fox. The next day they made their way down the Stock Road to the Woody End.

During the War of the Ring, the Tooks defended the Great Smials and the Green Hills against the Men in the service of Saruman who had taken over the Shire. Many Hobbits from the Green Hills fought in the Battle of Bywater on November 3, 3019.

When Frodo left the Shire for good in 3021, he and Sam camped in the Green Hills on the night of September 21 and met the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings in the Woody End the next day.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Three Is Company," p. 80-81
The Return of the King: "The Scouring of the Shire," p. 289, 294; "The Grey Havens," p. 307
The Journeys of Frodo by Barbara Strachey: Map #3, "Green Hill Country"

Hills in southwestern Gondor. The Green Hills were located just north of the coastal region of Anfalas. The range of hills stretched about 175 miles from west to east.

At the time of the War of the Ring, the people of the Green Hills were ruled by Hirluin. Hirluin led a company of 300 men to help defend Minas Tirith, arriving in the City on March 9, 3019. On March 15, they fought in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Hirluin was killed in the battle.

Names & Etymology:
The Green Hills were called Pinnath Gelin in Sindarin. The word pinnath means "ridges" derived from penn meaning "slope, declivity" and ath, a collective plural. The word gelin is a lenited form of celin which is the plural of calen meaning "green."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 63; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 121, 124-25; "The Steward and the King," p. 243
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for calen
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for PEN, PENED

Hills in southwestern Gondor. The Green Hills were located just north of the coastal region of Anfalas. The range of hills stretched about 175 miles from west to east.

At the time of the War of the Ring, the people of the Green Hills were ruled by Hirluin. Hirluin led a company of 300 men to help defend Minas Tirith, arriving in the City on March 9, 3019. On March 15, they fought in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Hirluin was killed in the battle.

Names & Etymology:
The Green Hills were called Pinnath Gelin in Sindarin. The word pinnath means "ridges" derived from penn meaning "slope, declivity" and ath, a collective plural. The word gelin is a lenited form of celin which is the plural of calen meaning "green."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 63; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 121, 124-25; "The Steward and the King," p. 243
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for calen
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for PEN, PENED

The Hill

The Hill was a large hill in Hobbiton near the Water. It was the site of Bag End as well as three smaller Hobbit-holes along Bagshot Row at the bottom. The village of Overhill was north of the Hill.

Names & Etymology:
Also called Hobbiton Hill.

Sources:
The Hobbit: "An Unexpected Party," p. 9-12
The Fellowship of the Ring: "A Long-Expected Party," p. 30
Appendix D of The Lord of the Rings: p. 390

Hill of Guard

Hill where Minas Tirith was located. The Hill of Guard was a foothill of Mount Mindolluin at the far eastern end of the White Mountains. The hill was attached to the mountainside by a rocky spur. The Hill of Guard stood about 700 feet high.

The seven-tiered city of Minas Anor - later Minas Tirith - was built on the hill shortly after the founding of Gondor in 3320 of the Second Age. The Hallows where the Kings and Stewards were laid to rest were located on the rocky spur, which was on a level with the fifth tier of the City.

There was another spur on the front or eastern side of the Hill of Guard which bisected the second through sixth levels of the City. The road that wound around the City passed through archways in this spur. On the top or seventh level, the spur formed a battlement where people could look out over the Pelennor Fields and beyond.

Names & Etymology:
The Sindarin name of the Hill of Guard was Amon Tirith from amon meaning "hill" and tirith meaning "watch, guard." It was so named because Minas Tirith was located there. The name of the City was not changed from Minas Anor to Minas Tirith until 2043 of the Third Age, but whether the hill was previously called Amon Anor - the Hill of the Sun - is not known.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 23-24
"Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," p. 186-87

Hills of Evendim

Hills in Eriador. The Hills of Evendim were located just north of the Shire. The southern slopes of the Hills of Evendim were the North Moors in the Northfarthing of the Shire. The hills stretched for about 150 miles from north to south.

Lake Evendim was on the eastern side of the Hills of Evendim. The lake was the source of the Brandywine. Another, unnamed river began on the western side of the Hills of Evendim and flowed into the Lune. The city of Annumimas was in the southern hills on the shore of Lake Evendim.

Annuminas was the capital of the North-kingdom of Arnor until 861 when the capital was moved eastward to Fornost in the North Downs. Annuminas was abandoned and fell into ruin.

The Witch-king of Angmar captured Fornost in 1974. In 1975, an army of Elves and Men of Arnor and Gondor gathered in the Hills of Evendim and then came down onto the plain between the Hills of Evendim and the North Downs and defeated the Witch-king in the Battle of Fornost.

Aragorn, King Elessar, rebuilt Annuminas in the Fourth Age and it became the capital of Arnor once more.

Names & Etymology:
The Hills of Evendim were calledEmyn Uial in Sindarin. The word emyn means "hills" and uial means 'twilight." Evendim means "evening twilight."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 257
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 324; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 331
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for amon and uial

Hills of Scary

Hills in the Shire. The Hills of Scary were located near the northern border of the Eastfarthing. The village of Scary was at the southern foot of these hills. There were caves and tunnels called the Brockenbores in the Hills of Scary as well as a quarry.

During the War of the Ring, stores of food, beer, and goods were kept in the old quarries by the Chief's Men, and after the Scouring of the Shire these goods were used by the Hobbits to celebrate the Yule holiday. The Brockenbores in the Hills of Scary were also the hiding place of a band of rebel Hobbits led by Fatty Bolger during the war.

Names & Etymology:
Scar is an English dialectical word meaning "rocky cliff."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: Map of "A Part of the Shire"
The Return of the King: "The Grey Havens," p. 301-302
"Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," p. 191

Iron Hills

Range of hills in northeastern Middle-earth. The Iron Hills were isolated in the middle of an empty region about 125 miles east of the Lonely Mountain and Mirkwood. The range stretched about 200 miles from west to east. Near the western end, the Redwater flowed southward from the hills to join the River Running. On the eastern end, a spur of hills curved north and then back westward forming a hook at the end of the range.

The Iron Hills were a major source of iron ore in Middle-earth. Dwarves may have mined the Iron Hills as early as the First Age. At one time the Old Forest Road through Mirkwood - then called the Great Dwarf Road - is said to have extended northeastward as far as the Iron Hills.

In 2590 of the Third Age, a group of Dwarves led by Gror settled in the Iron Hills. Gror and his followers had fled from the Grey Mountains because of increasing attacks by Dragons from the Northern Waste. Gror's father Dain I and brother Fror had been killed by a Cold-drake. Gror's other brother Thror led another group of Dwarves to the Lonely Mountain. The Dwarves of the Iron Hills traded iron ore with the Dwarves of the Lonely Mountain.

In 2799, Gror's son Nain led an army from the Iron Hills to help the Dwarves fight the Orcs in the Battle of Azanulbizar. The Dwarves of the Iron Hills helped turn the tide of the battle to victory. Nain was slain by the Orc-leader Azog before the eastern gate of Moria, but Nain's son Dain Ironfoot avenged him by killing Azog.

Dain Ironfoot led his army back to the Iron Hills and became the leader of his people. The Dwarves of the Iron Hills lived in peace and prosperity for many years. They were especially known for inventing a fine metal mesh that could be used for making flexible items such as leg-coverings.

In 2941, Dain Ironfoot received a request for aid from the Lonely Mountain where Thorin and Company had barricaded themselves to prevent the Men of Lake-town and the Elves of Mirkwood from claiming a share of the treasure recovered from Smaug the Dragon. Dain led a force of over 500 strong and well-armed Dwarves as swiftly as he could to the Lonely Mountain. But when they arrived they learned that an army of Orcs and Wargs was about to attack. Dain decided to join forces with the Men and Elves against their common enemies, and they defeated the Orcs and Wargs in the Battle of the Five Armies.

Thorin Oakenshield died in the battle, and Dain became King under the Mountain. He relocated to the Lonely Mountain and many other Dwarves joined him. It is not known what became of the settlement of Dwarves in the Iron Hills - though it seems likely that the mines would have been maintained.

Names & Etymology:
The Iron Hills were so called because they were rich in iron ore. The Sindarin name was probably Emyn Engrin from emyn meaning "hills" and engrin the plural of angren meaning "iron."

Sources:
The Hobbit: "The Gathering Clouds," p. 271, 275; "A Thief in the Night," p. 279, 283; "The Clouds Burst," p. 289-96; "The Return Journey," p. 303-4
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Durin's Folk," p. 353, 355-57, 359
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 368-69
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for AM2 and ANGA
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "Of Dwarves and Men," p. 302, 305, 323-24 note 30

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PostSubject: Re: Hills and downs   Tue Dec 11, 2007 7:20 pm

Ravenhill

Ravenhill
Hill at the foot of the Lonely Mountain. Ravenhill was located at the end of the great southern spur of the Lonely Mountain. A road ran from Ravenhill along the spur, then across the River Running and up to the Front Gate of the Lonely Mountain.

The Dwarves maintained a watch-post at Ravenhill. At the top of the hill was a flat space from which a look-out could see east, south, and west. In a rocky wall on the northern side was a large guardroom that could hold 100 people, with a smaller chamber beyond.

In the cliffs above the guardroom lived a Raven named Carc along with his wife. After they died, their son Roac dwelled on Ravenhill.

When Smaug descended on the Lonely Mountain in 2770, the warning from the look-out post came too late. Balin later suggested that the guards' lodgings were too comfortable and the watch had grown lax. Ravenhill was long deserted by all but the Ravens until Balin and the other Dwarves of Thorin & Company camped there along with Bilbo Baggins in 2941. They met Roac on Ravenhill, who told them of Smaug's death and of the coming of the Wood-elves and Lake-men. Thorin & Company then left Ravenhill and barricaded themselves inside the Lonely Mountain.

During the Battle of the Five Armies, the Elvenking Thranduil and the Wood-elves of Mirkwood made their stand on Ravenhill along with an invisible Bilbo.

Names & Etymology:
Ravenhill was so called because of the Ravens who lived there.

Sources:
The Hobbit: "On the Doorstep," p. 216; "Not at Home," p. 255-57; "The Gathering of the Clouds," p. 268-71; "The Clouds Burst," p. 295, 297; "The Return Journey," p. 299

Tower Hills (Emyn Beraid)

Hills in Eriador west of the Shire. The three White Towers were built in the Tower Hills by Gil-galad for Elendil, and the tallest, Elostirion, housed the palantir of Elendil that looked west across the Sea.

In the year 31 of the Fourth Age, the Tower Hills became the western border of the Shire when the lands between the hills and the Far Downs were added to the Shire by a gift of Aragorn, King Elessar. This region was called the Westmarch. In the year 34 of the Fourth Age, Samwise Gamgee's daughter Elanor and her husband Fastred of Greenholm - the Warden of Westmarch - moved to Undertowers in the Tower Hills. Their descendants came to be called the Fairbairns of the Towers.

Names & Etymology:
Also called Emyn Beraid in Sindarin. The word emyn means "hills" and beraid means "towers."

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Concerning Hobbits," p. 16
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 322 note 2
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 378
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 291-92


Weathertop & the Weather Hills



Hills in Eriador. The Weather Hills were located just north of the Great East Road about midway between Bree and the Last Bridge. The Midgewater Marshes were west of the Weather Hills. The range stretched about 75 miles from north to south. Some of the hills rose to a height of 1,000 feet.

Weathertop - also called Amon Sul - was the southernmost and tallest of the Weather Hills. It was conical in shape with a slightly flattened top. On the western side of the hill there was a sheltered hollow with a bowl-shaped dell at the bottom. Nearby was a spring of clear water.

Men lived in the Weather Hills before the arrival of Elendil and the survivors of Numenor. After the North-kingdom of Arnor was established in 3320 of the Second Age, the Tower of Amon Sul was built on Weathertop. One of the palantiri was kept there. The Men of Arnor did not live in the Weather Hills but maintained defenses there.

In 861 of the Third Age, Arnor was divided into the three Kingdoms of Arthedain, Rhudaur, and Cardolan. The Weather Hills were on the border between Arthedain and Rhudaur, while Cardolan bordered on the Great East Road south of the Weather Hills. Possession of the Weather Hills and particularly the Tower of Amon Sul became a source of dispute among the three kingdoms.

King Argeleb I of Arthedain fortified the Weather Hills. A hidden path serving the forts ran through the hills from north to south. Rhudaur had been taken over by an evil lord in league with the Witch-king of Angmar. In 1356, the forces of Rhudaur and Angmar attacked and Argeleb I was slain defending the Weather Hills.

Argeleb's son Arveleg I was able to defend the Weather Hills with the help of Cardolan for many years. But in 1409, Weathertop was surrounded by a great host from Angmar and Arveleg I was killed. The Tower of Amon Sul was burned and razed and nothing remained but a tumbled ring of stones on the summit of Weathertop.

By the end of the Third Age, Weathertop was desolate and uninhabited, except for Rangers who took shelter in the dell on the west side of the hill from time to time. The Ranger known as Strider decided to lead Frodo Baggins and his companions to Weathertop when the Ring-bearer was pursued from Bree by Nazgul.

They arrived at Weathertop on October 6, 3018, and set up camp in the dell. In the center of the ruins on top of the hill there was a blackened pile of stones. The topmost stone bore markings that led Strider to believe that Gandalf had been there on October 3. The lights and flashes that Strider and the Hobbits had seen three nights before had in fact been the result of a battle between Gandalf and the Nazgul atop Weathertop.

Suddenly on the road below, Frodo saw five of the Nazgul. Strider had the Hobbits hide and they retreated to the dell, but the Nazgul sensed them and that night they attacked the camp. They were led by the Witch-king of Angmar who was the Lord of the Nazgul.

In the presence of Sauron's dreadful servants, Frodo succumbed to the overwhelming temptation to put on the Ring, but he resisted their attempt to take him by drawing his sword and invoking the name of Elbereth Gilthoniel, one of the Valar. The Witch-king stabbed Frodo in the shoulder, but Frodo's defiance and the appearance of Strider armed with flaming brands drove the Nazgul away.

On his way home to the Shire after the downfall of Sauron, Frodo would not look at Weathertop but rode past hastily with his head bowed. The wound in his shoulder continued to trouble him, particularly each year on October 6.

Names & Etymology:
Weathertop was called Amon Sl in Sindarin. Amon Sl means "Hill of the Wind" from amon meaning "hill" and sl meaning "wind." It was also called Weathertop Hill.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "A Knife in the Dark," p. 194-208; "Flight to the Ford," p. 209-11; "The Council of Elrond," p. 277
The Return of the King: "Homeward Bound," p. 268
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "Of Dwarves and Men," p. 313

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